Guidaver said that the history of gay literature is the invention of Taiwan. In the first year of the Joint Newspaper (1951), the newspaper began to use the three words "homosexuality", and began to teach the public to understand and misunderstand "homosexuality".
Gay literature is less concerned about the 1950 years, after all, the famous writers of homosexuality (such as Pai Xian) to the 60 's to make his fortune. I have argued that the 50 's is the key to the history of gay literature 10 years: in the decade the newspaper provided a large number of gay-related information (including non-literary reports and translation of foreign literature), in the form of diligent training of domestic readers in "modern Chinese" to know homosexuality. If the 50 's newspaper did not sow the seeds of homosexuality to society, how could a gay writer in the 60 have ready readers to reap it?
The 1950 's appeared "Epoch-making phenomenon": From the 50 's, the domestic public in the newspaper this public media "dense" see the "Preach homosexuality" of modern Chinese text. Before the 50 's, Japanese newspapers in Taiwan published gay-related intelligence, but there was no "intensive" persuasion against homosexuality. Since the 50 's, thanks to the wide promotion of the newspaper, domestic readers have been given a wave of new knowledge: there is a "homosexual" population that is different from the average person in the society, and it turns out that the mysterious population is morally corrupt; they need to be trained by the national community.
Literary and historical researchers have long been looking at the rise of the newspaper to estimate the birth of the reader's public. For example, famous literary history of the Family Yi Ann. Watt (Ian Watt), in the Rise of the novel (The Rise of the novel), uses the circulation of newspapers in 18th century to estimate the size of the "Readers ' public" (reading). I also looked at the 1950 's newspaper news, learned that at that time the domestic newspaper people can often see homosexual intelligence. The observation also brings clues that can be identified and uncertain. I can confirm that the 50 's newspaper on the one hand relied on foreign (mainly American) to provide homosexual information, on the other hand, the domestic people to inculcate homosexual knowledge/false knowledge.
But I am not sure if the domestic newspaper is reliable: whether the newspaper faithfully translated foreign, whether the honest report of domestic homosexual related news, whether involved in fiction, mistranslation, embellished, out of thin and so on acts? I can't verify any of this. But these uncertainties are not surprising: if the 21st century newspapers were full of lies, would the 1950 's newspapers be more neutral and credible than the 21st century papers? Because the content of the newspaper is not necessarily the truth, I do not expect the public to be able to read the newspaper into a "correct understanding" of gay readers, and not expect literary writers to use the content of newspapers as a reliable model for sketching. However, I will not deny the value of the newspaper because the contents of the newspaper, but rather cherish the paranoid atmosphere of the newspaper content: the people (including literary authors) who are influenced by the newspaper may not easily forget the existence of the homosexual population, but might expect to read more gay mysteries, And even then make up their own homosexual stories. The 1950-year atmosphere of this daydream is a warm work for 1960-year literature.
My observations are mainly based on the joint report. I rely on the 1950 's "union", which has two points. (a) Why choose this age: I emphasized the 50 's newspaper in order to prove that the domestic people in the 50 's can "read a large circulation newspaper to see Gay-related information" in order to challenge "people to the 60 only in the (circulation of small) literature," modern literature "see homosexuality" this common sense. I do not need to prove that people in the 60 's need to read newspapers to learn homosexual information, so I do not see the 60 's after the newspaper. (b) Why the newspaper was chosen: the joint newspaper had a huge circulation in the 50 's (especially for readers). All I need to do is look at the 50 's "union" (including its supplement) to make a rough guess about what the readers of the newspaper were able to read. I don't have to check whether other smaller newspapers also present homosexual intelligence.
The first news of the first edition of the newspaper (front-page), the Associated Press, was the headline of the AP, which was titled "The Bandits are about to bombard the north-east as soon as they use a large number of air forces," the news said. The news is in the form of a prophecy: the "Korean War" that triggered the cold war, foreign foreign from the United States, is precisely the key to understanding the 1950-year "joint newspaper."
In the 1950 's, the Union newspaper was happy to mention homosexuality. In the first year of the creation of the newspaper (1951), the Union newspaper began to enable the "gay" of the three words: the cause of the murder of beauty salon to be judged by the final Judgment sex freak homicide is more likely > This report states, "(one of the dead) the anus slightly enlarged, but whether this can prove that two of the deceased had" homosexual "argument ...". The last paragraph of the report, "There are two interesting episodes" of the words, it can be seen that the "United daily" This tragic "sexual perversion" of the case as an anecdote, sold to consumers.
At the time, gay-related information appeared frequently in the Union, and I speculated that there were 2:1 reasons why the union had been willing to use sensational social news to attract readers. such as Chen Guoxiang, Shinping in the "Taiwan newspaper Evolution 40 years," the book pointed out that the "union" from the inception to 1958 period, the social news with "Shanghai newspaper Mandarin Duck Butterfly's vulgar accent","and therefore by the middle and lower class readers welcome." Second, the joint newspaper was influenced by the domino effect of the American press. Since Taiwan was incorporated under American wings after the opening of the Cold War in the 1950, Taiwanese newspapers, including the Union and other newspapers, will inevitably follow the news of American newspapers.
For both of these reasons, the United Daily is not only diligent in reporting "homosexuality", but also focus on other marginalized people, such as "transgender people". I am concerned about how the 1950 's "union" presents homosexuality, while the Canadian scholar Jiang Cohao (Howard Chiang) studied the "transgender" theme in the 1953 year of the joint newspaper. According to Jiang Cohao, the Union reported in 1953 the story of a native "yin and yang" (Press, the Union newspaper) (a soldier who wanted to change from a male to a female). The newspaper also said that the people in Taiwan would not let a similar case in the United States "exclusively in the former" (Press, the Joint Report language), which is to see the United States as the object of Taiwan's imitation. The "Yin and yang" Report of the 1953 Union newspaper is similar to the report's "gay" reports: It also uses the spectacle of "others" to drum up readers, as well as the United States as a model. The word "transgender" was in vogue in the country after the Union newspaper opened the term "transsexual person" in 1954. How does the joint report use the press to make up the text, in post-war Taiwan, creating another spectacle of new subjects (such as my talk of homosexuality, Jiang Cohao, and other new fringe themes) is a worthy study of the Cold War "life Politics" (biopolitics) topic. It is a pity that this book is focused on gay literature and cannot continue to in-depth the "yin and yang people".
The "American newspaper Dynamics", previously mentioned enough to influence Taiwanese newspapers, refers to a sudden American newspaper's concern about homosexuality. The previous book, "Homosexuality causes panic", said that homosexuality in the 1950 's U.S. media exposure has increased. According to the book, in the early 50, the U.S. State Department of Washington, D.C. (Department of States) after a two-wave speech storm (preceded by Senator McCarthy, then the State Council officials to speak), the newspaper immediately rush to report homosexuality. An American columnist even said in the year of 1950 that American newspapers were suddenly more concerned about homosexuality than the newspaper's "watershed"─── "the quoted writer said that by the year 1950, American society could finally face up to homosexuality and sexual perversion. The above-mentioned watershed in the US newspaper (meaning a sudden start on homosexuality) has also led to a watershed in Taiwan's newspaper industry--and I will later refer to Chen's "joint Report", which is diligent in conveying the U.S. State Department "scandal" to its domestic audience.
The Japanese newspapers of the pre-Cold War period (by the end of 1940) and the Chinese newspapers in the Cold War period (beginning in the 50) were gay. There are both continuation and rupture between these two periods. I said there is a continuation, is that the Japanese newspapers show that the same sex love in the 50 newspaper also see, as if the deadline for crossing the regime/use of the date line, passed down from one generation to the other. And I said the break, including at least three kinds: one, "The sacrifice of the journalist"; second, "Language difference"; three, "the contrast of scale". One, media Ludong in the "political media wrestling Taiwan newspaper," pointed out that many newspaper workers as the fear of intellectuals, in the reign of terror was persecuted or even killed. The number of newspaper workers who survived the 50-year period from Japan was limited. Second, the Cold War period before the newspaper mainly used in Japanese, Cold War newspapers mainly used Chinese, the original use of Japanese newspaper workers and readers may not be able to immediately put into the arms of Chinese newspapers in the war. Third, I pay particular attention to the 50-year newspaper used "unprecedented scale" to admonish the public "disastrous". Compared to the previous two faults, this third kind of fracture is closer to the homosexual information logistics. Pre-Cold War Japanese newspaper readers "occasionally" in the newspaper read gay-related information, the 50 's Chinese newspaper readers are "frequent" in the newspaper to see gay-related reports. Just now, Chen Pei discovered that in 1910-1930 there were 10 stories about "gay love" and 26 references to "homosexual" suicide in Taiwan, but the Chinese newspapers in the 50 were more diligent, more intensive and more panicky in revealing the ecology of homosexuality.
In the 1950 's readers in the "union" read the gay-related words can be divided into four categories, at least three of these are "translations" of data from the West (mainly the United States): One, foreign reports (from Western countries), and common sense (translating Western views of homosexuality into native readers); third, translation literature (from the United States , France) and four, local news. These four types of text in the newspaper and Chen, Liyingwaige (local news in the country echoes foreign journalism and Literature): readers may also see local news of gay Qingsha in the next page of the U.S. arrests of gays and lesbians, and more likely to see foreign novels stating homosexuality in the supplement.
The number of texts in the above four categories is numerous, with only a few examples illustrated.
The first category, foreign
Foreign news seems to have no direct bearing on gay "literature", but the value of external transmission (which treats comrades as villains) will eventually affect literature. Foreign foreign and foreign clearly told the Taiwanese readers, homosexuality is a sinner against the communist cause. In 1952, the Union reported that the U.S. State Department "believes these gay-loving elements (more than 100 civil servants dismissed) are in danger of settling down", according to UPI, a newspaper published in Washington, D.C., "the dismissal of gays and lesbians." In 1953, the Union reported that "hundreds of members of the State Department who are suspected of being guilty of homosexuality have committed a crime to break the rice bowl" according to AP Washington. The two U.S. State Department news is just the tip of the iceberg, but suffice to justify my earlier speculation that the dynamics of the American press (such as the State Department's gay News) could also lead to Taiwan's dynamics. Similar newspapers continued to be published in the 1950 and 60, reminding local readers of how homosexuality is harmful to Western countries. Since the United States treats homosexuality as a Ring, the Republic of China, protected by the United States, also sees homosexuality as a dislike.
The second category, common sense of life
The common sense of life refers to the short passages of "health care Knowledge" and "Life Tips", which are still published in a large number of media. These essays do not seem to be directly related to gay literature, but these essays continue to inculcate traditional attitudes towards homosexuality among the public, including future literary writers. The 1950 's newspaper will be known as the life from the United States of common sense, translation rewrite become the education of readers popular articles. I'm not sure who wrote the articles, or whether they were loyal to the foreign data, but I'm sure these articles are in the name of American Science (medicine, psychology) to correct the reality of social atmosphere.
For example, the signature "Yi Zhen", published in the 1958 issue of "The Supplement Vientiane Edition" of the "sex hormones" (up to 1300 words), said, "can sex hormones cure homosexuality?" No. Gays and lesbians are caused by psychology, not by physical factors. "The only medical authority mentioned in this article is an American. This article tells readers: homosexuality is a need to be treated as a disease, let "psychological" experts to tube. This "Yi Zhen" in 1959 more published the "Homosexual Formation and prevention", more than 1300 words of the article intensively mentions five Anglo-American authority. Yi Zhen wrote, according to Dr. Kinsey's report: "37% of men, in their lifetime, have ever made a homosexual ..." Kinsey urged the public to see the universal homosexuality, but Yi Zhen misinterpreted the gold race, said that the golden race, homosexuality is rampant. " "In addition, psychotherapy is also important for those who are guilty of this sexual perversion," he wrote in the paper, allowing them to go back to "normal sexual life." "Psychotherapy" is a prescription for homosexuality, the conclusion goes. The Taiwanese public's desire to seek help from "psychological experts" when they see homosexuality may be a subtle effect of such articles.
The third category, translation novels
Translation fiction is not a local gay literature. But in my opinion, many local publics first read foreign literature highlighting homosexuality in the 1950 's, and then contacted the local writers ' gay literature in the 1960 's.
I found two examples in the 1950 's Joint newspaper: (a) The American novel The Month Oath (the Moon Vow), and (ii) Andre, Nobel laureate in literature. Gide (Andrégide) 's work "Send the sad Bosom" (French edition title et nunc MANET in TE; English title Madeleine). The two works are noteworthy, except because they "apparently" introduced homosexuality and literature to domestic audiences in the 1950 's, and because they "implicitly" were related to the Cold War strategy: (i) the American novel "the Month Oath" conforms to the Cold War anti-communist strategy. The main action of novel narration is to criticize the Old China (the main adversary of the United States in the Cold War) and teach the Chinese people to accept "normal" and "scientific" sex education. (b) Gide's translator Nie Hua with the Cold War fate deep. As long as Nie Hua was still in Taiwan, the American government's Asian experts have encouraged Engle (the founder of the Iowa writing class, Nie Hua's later husband) to take Nie Hua to the United States--an Asian expert has found that the Nie Hua and Yu Guangzhong, who teaches creative writing in Taiwan, is one of the few worthy partners of the US.
The "gay" mentioned in the 1950 's "the Union" is actually "gay", and there are few "lesbians". The "Month Oath" was the only obvious exception to lesbians. From 1958 onwards, "The Joint newspaper" "Supplement Vientiane" began serial "Month Oath", the author is "Chinese female writer Linhan Zhi Hezel lin". " "This novel uses the Red Communist Party gang Shang before the peiping to do the background", the translator signed "The Southern Shuo" (also makes "the South to Retrace"). The newspaper wrote off the small opening before it began to serialize, writing: "The female doctor has put a girl who appears to be not ill, rescued from the very serious intangible morbid, this feminine emotional sickness, although the book hostess is a very young (press," Young ") China brides, in fact any society, has such morbid bride. 」
Here the editor of the "Invisible morbid" is lesbian--editors know that lesbian secret is quite attractive, but deliberately sell. In the novel, The female Doctor met a girl who refused to consummated with her husband and later found "the culprit": Miss Guan, who was too enthusiastic about women. "The Oath of the Moon" in singing the anti-japanese, praise the Republic of China, more frequently tease the reader: taking advantage of the female physician in the time, the novel shows the girl's nude; While Ms. Kwan seduced a female physician, the novel depicts the red heart of two adult women. Guanxia many times to sexually tease female doctors, female doctors Rage against Miss Guan: "... You have a very incorrect view of the question of sex ... You don't need a man, but you need a woman! You are not without sex, but your sexual desire to vent out often. ...... Why don't you let me introduce you to a mental-pathological expert who will quickly cure you? The newspaper once again stressed to the reader that "psychological" experts are destined to pair with homosexuals. "Miss Guan has shown that she is a very abnormal woman," Nevin of the novel said.
From her words and deeds this afternoon, she is likely to be a woman obsessed with gay love. Miss Kwan later admitted to the female doctor that she had joined a gay club known as "sewing". 「...... The inside of the sewing ... is a gay love club "," we all include those female servants are concerned about each other, like-minded and loving each other. The General people in the community think that their life is justified, we do the Shang is illegal, so we are more united and tight "," Everyone Acclamation I Do "gunmen", tease the work is all my responsibility. ...... Bawl, I have said all I have to say. Life is to seek happiness, we feel so happy, why not do? What's the law? "The Shooter", which provides the club members with sexual services, is responsible for (sexually) teasing the VIP-the gunman in the member "lower Body" (the novel text word) stuffed into metal toys. Female doctors can't help but scold Miss Guan, "your crime is to seduce Li Mei, betray the husband, become a lesbian love woman." On this point, you have a big lawsuit! "The female physician finally acts like Hollywood action movie heroine: She bravely rushes into the lesbian club, corrects Miss Guan's abnormal psychology, and convinces the teenage wife and the husband intercourse."
"The Month Oath" This American novel does exist, the author "Chinese female writer Linhan Zhi Hazel lin" also has a person, only this book this person has long been the American literary circles and the academic world, almost no one talks. " The value of the month oath can be discussed, while the value of entertainment is high: the novel "Entertaining", which is singing anti-Japanese patriotism, allows Taiwanese readers to "understand/misunderstand" homosexuality on the one hand, and "pleasure" to be regarded as abnormal women on the other.
The same joint report, published in the Month oath, also published in 1960 the Nobel Prize laureate, Andre. Gide's work, "send the sad bosom". October 16, 1960, in the "sad bosom" began to serial this day, Nie Hua's article Gide and ""> declaration, Gide "24 years old, he went to Africa to travel. There he found his own same-sex love problem. "On October 21, 1960, Nie Hua's translation appears as" homosexual "and provides a detailed annotation:" (note 7) Gide once wrote a book on homosexuality in the dialogue, "Goli", which objectively explores homosexuality from the standpoint of human nature, art, science and history. "The joint report" three consecutive weeks serial Nie Hua translation of "Send sad bosom". From then on, "Gide" and "Send the sad bosom" these two words symbol to "Taiwan" the reader is a innuendo homosexual password. The famous painter Sid entered The Apprentice Zhuang Jia Village Remember, he was in the early 1960 's when Sid entered the model, "once he (press, Schidegen) kissed me." I was very fond of watching Gide's "ground food", think Gide write very sensitive, I do not know gide have "homosexual" tendencies. So, I think it is very simple, I think he kissed me, is only a kind of friendly expression. In other words, in Zhangjia's recollection, Sid enters the homosexual and the Gide writes out the fraternity, the form with each other writes the annotation.
Young novelist Chiuxin's novel "Montmartre Suicide" book is the last book is "Send Sad bosom", "Montmartre suicide" narrator said, "Gide in later years of his wife wrote" Sad Bosom ", repentance v. His life for her love and resentment. In the process of writing this book I have been accompanied by my five years of "send sad bosom", only the strength of this book, love and resentment of the sincere power to encourage me to finish the book. "This" sad bosom "is Gide's book, is also Nie Hua's book: If" Montmartre "narrator did not contact Nie Hua translation, it will not be Gide's book called" Send Sad Bosom ". In the west, the French version of the book "She is in Your Heart" (the title is Latin; according to, "she" refers to Gide's wife), English title is "Madeleine" (Press, Gide wife's name), both with "Send sad bosom" These three words are irrelevant. I also found that this book is very unpopular in the French and English world. "Send the sad bosom" these three words with "homosexuality" the predestination, it is also "the Invention of Taiwan": If Nie Hua chose this gide book and interpreted the title as a Chinese-flavored "send-and-cry", then the Taiwanese readership (including the narrator in the Montmartre Testament) would not be able to read the title, I don't even know if the title is there. The "quaint" prestige enjoyed by Taiwan as "The Invention of Taiwan" is likely to surprise the readers in the West.
In the act "Montmartre", which refers to "mourning", there are two types of Cross-border movements: first, from the "sad bosom" of "Different" Love Mourning ("double" sexual love husband Gide mourning wife) crossed to the "Montmartre Suicide" lesbian Mourning (woman mourning lesbian relationship rupture); two, from "The sad bosom" mourning death crosses the line to " Matt's suicide note lamented the survival of the. Novelist Shijing wrote a memorial to Chiuxin's novel, named "Send the Sad bosom", also carried out two kinds of cross-border action: standing in heterosexual position to mourn homosexuality, standing in the position of mourning death.
"The Oath of the Month", "Send the sad bosom" at that time the literary circle circulation rate should be very high, not only because "the Union newspaper" in 1959 was already the Taiwan circulation highest newspaper, but also because at that time "the Union newspaper" The Supplement editor is the literary world respect the Lin Yin. She was honored as "Mr. Lin", and her living room was hailed as "half of Taiwan's literary world". Lin Hai is the second chief editor of the Joint Newspaper Supplement (term of office from 1953-1963), and its supplement publishes a wide variety of content, including "Western literature translation"53──── such as the Month Oath "and" the sad bosom ".
Four, local news
This section has been preceded by two 1951 years of social news in the joint newspaper. In fact, the Union reported a high interest in homosexuality throughout the 1950. Huang Daoming in the queer politics and Taiwan Modern "sex", pointed out that the 1959 "the United Daily" "reader letters" lamented "new park" to become "gay" "male Prostitute", the 1971 "public daily" is more detailed coverage of the new park gay "organization." Huang Daoming that these two reports can give readers a clearer grasp of the "evil son" of the space-time context. Since Huang Daoming the 1971 "Volkswagen daily" rather than the 1959-year "union", then I will examine the 1959 "Joint newspaper" reader letters. The signature "Prostitution of the scourge of struggling readers (Taipei)" pointed out, "The new park has become a half-public prostitution hall, same-sex love of the Flood of", "there are gangs of poor boys often have plans to seduce foreigners have that kind of abnormal hobby of the men," please the city quickly to new park to add streetlights, send police patrol, The eradication of homosexuality "55 the scourge of male prostitution. The "foreign pervert" here may mean the Americans: 1959 is the Vietnam War (1955───1975). In other words, local news and international situations are closely nestled.
The 1950 's homosexuality related news is numerous, the Huang Daoming book cannot mention separately, I also cannot count. But I would like to recall in particular the "Huang homicide case" which was not mentioned in the Huang Daoming special book. The "Huang case" attracted my attention for two reasons. First, the "Huang case" in the 50 's the visibility of the newspaper is extremely high, strengthening the gay press rate. As early as in the "Evil Son" (from 1978 onwards, published in 1983) before the murder of gay men (that is, "Longzi kill Fung" in the novel), "The Joint newspaper" in 1976, in half a year, to the vast number of readers to report the "Huang case" involving gay men. The author of "Sin Zi" may not be inspired by reports of newspaper murders, but the reader of the evil son, especially in the late 70 and early 80, might associate the murder news with a novel.
Second, the newspaper shows the "Huang case" revealed the Cold War sentiment. "Credit News" ("China Times" predecessor) on May 23, 1959, the fourth edition of almost full edition of "pictorial" coverage of the Huang case, a spectacle. I said the illustrations, because the layout of the murderer (Huang) portrait, the murderer's bloody clothes and pistol photos, the deceased (the man killed by Huang) Pictures, the death of the murder scene, the deceased skull photos, etc., happy to show the reader too much detail. To attract my layout information, in addition to these thriller photos, there are many reports next to the title: In addition to the entire layout of the largest title "crime history added a new page gay wildfire kill friend Burn corpse Root" outside, "South Korea early Knot fate became same-sex husband and wife", "the deceased is quite a few dollars familiar but few people", "phonograph and greenback Grudges and then to seek wealth "also leaks the mystery: the original murderer and the deceased are related to Korean War, unexpectedly all was once the ROC Ministry of Defense sent to participate in the Korean War translation officer. Since the Korean War back to Taiwan, both sides have a U.S. dollar deposit, the two people have the U.S. dollar loan relationship. The backdrop to this whole edition of the newspaper's spectacle is the Cold War.
Most of the local news about homosexuality is a short piece of information that allows both the newspaper and the reader to spend the day, but the "Huang case" is a series of six months of strange romance. "The joint newspaper" in the "Huang First kill motive!" The weakness is controlled to the end of the attack, and the article points out, "where is the real motive for Huang to kill first?" Neither to seek wealth nor Qingsha, but to be forced by the death of Yang xx homosexual threat, yang through this weakness, control his reputation, his actions, and even his lifelong happiness, because he is ready to marry a family lady. "Homosexuality has been a secret that must be concealed, and once forced to reveal it is enough to detonate the murder." "Mr. Huang sexual weak, have a daughter state, afraid of shame, prone to blush, people who know him can not believe that he will do this kind of thing, he was caught in the trap of Yang xx homosexual, psychologically, mentally stimulated by the deep." The report repeatedly consumed the girly of the man surnamed Huang. But the paradox is that the consumption of the Yellow Man's report reveals a sympathetic tendency towards the man surnamed Wong. The report will be the victim of Yang, the man wrote cunning perpetrators, will be the perpetrators of yellow man wrote helpless victim: Yang surname man will be homosexual as a handle, destroy yellow surname man's life. According to the report, being killed is tragic, but it seems that homosexual secrets are worse than being killed.
After one months in the publication of the report, another report in the Union reported that the body was not sick, and that after being examined by the coroner, the man surnamed Huang said, "I am perfectly normal, and I do not have any half-yin-yang metamorphosis ..." We (press, Huang and the deceased) only once had a relationship, only once. At that time, when the society met with homosexuality, it wanted to check whether the sexual organs of the parties were "normal", as if homosexuality was not made by the inner lust, but by the appearance of an organ. Why the legal mechanism at that time asked the defendant to undergo a physical examination (check is not "yin and yang"), but also intriguing. After another four months, as a "representative of the country" Zhaoban, letters to the "joint newspaper", pointed out that "revolutionary martyrs Huang General's son Huang first murder corpse case, the report has been sentenced to death by the Supreme Court", called for president Amnesty Yellow surname man, "for the Martyrs orphans leave chance." Zhaoban and quoted the Supreme Court's verdict, stressing that "Huang is not a despicable and vulgar homosexual act". The more you emphasize that someone has nothing to do with homosexuality, the more black it becomes. To fight for the "abolition of death" for homosexual murders, even in line with the 1950-year anti-communist era of the theme of patriotism-for the revolutionary martyrs to retain orphans, is patriotic. Zhaoban stressed that "if Huang because the ancestors of" work in the nation "to be saved from death, to stimulate the patriotic atmosphere of loyalty, how much positive role."
Zhaoban's letters was published in November 1957, and the prose that he just mentioned was published one months later (December 1957). Pai Hsien-yung may have read Huang in the joint newspaper.
The local readers ' access to the gay-related intelligence in modern Chinese is not the beginning of the 1960 years of the rise of Bai Xian-yong, but the 50 's of the students ' readers. In the 50 's, when the newspapers intensively taught the Taiwanese public about homosexuality, the public learned to appreciate the literary world created by the authors of the 60 generation.