The history of today--7/25 is the world's first IVF birth day, this day, countless infertile parents look forward to this life. The development of artificial reproductive technology, which is open in IVF, has promoted the change of human and family structure, and we have talked about it from test-tube babies in our post family age.
July 25, 1978, in the history of the first IVF-She Brown (Louise Joy Brown) was born in England.
Lois ' mother, who was unable to conceive because of obstruction of the fallopian tube, tried for nine years, and her parents sought since 1966 to study the Steptoe physician and physiologist, vitro fertilization,ivt, in vitro fertilization, July 25 evening 11:47 , Lois She Brown through a caesarean section, came to this world to her full of anticipation. Media attention, guard protests, millions of of infertile parents, a warm look to her, people call her "the Century Baby."
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The gender significance of the baby of the Century: the "naturalness" of the mother and child is cut off
Edwards: "The birth of Lois is far-reaching, we have to fight against many opponents, but we believe that our ideas are workable and they work." 」
The IVF technique is to remove the eggs and sperm, and after being conceived in a petri dish in vitro, the culture splits into embryos and is implanted into the uterus. Because the origin of life in vitro, so called "in vitro Fertilization", commonly known as "IVF".
Then the progress of artificial reproductive technology, the 1983 frozen embryo technology to allow infertility patients successfully pregnant, frozen egg technology success, the first frozen embryo fertilization was born, 1922 sperm injection of sperm injected into the egg, male infertility treatment towards a new milestone; 1988 Embryo culture in blastocyst stage improves the clinical pregnancy rate.
There are more than 6 million IVF babies worldwide today. IVF has a more complex family pedigree, and his relationship may include genetic parents, pregnant mothers, and adoptive parents. Life and nurture and raise, no longer is the mother of the train, "mother" was given to the integrity of the personality was one by one broken, IVF let the long-term operation of the paternal patriarchal society recognized-society has the capacity and obligation to share the mother. It includes people's reproductive expectations of women, cutting off the sacred umbilical cord of a mother and child as if it were built in motherly love.
Society for a long time to recognize women have children to assist the family obligations, "maternal" was given to the high God-mother of the higher than the mountains than the sea, like a natural, "insurmountable" mother power from a generation of reproductive utilitarian orientation, when "IVF" break because the female body can be natural Will the greatness of the next generation "liberate more mothers when they become mothers the day after tomorrow?"
Artificial reproduction so that infertile women do not have to bear the "incomplete" original sin, relatively also let women enter a more complete reproductive system, such medical and technology is to provide women "choice" or "hint" female procreation? Can artificial reproductive technology deliver women's body autonomy back to women's hands? Would it be a reproduction of another production industry? Whether the child must have "blood" relationship to love? Until the 21st century, it was a topic of gender and social exploration.
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Surrogate mother's production industry: 850,000, guaranteed to have a boy
IVF technology has spawned strong surrogate motherhood, artificial reproductive system, but this system is only suitable for those who have a vested interest, women in the bottom of society, is to support the structure of the bottom of the pyramid. For example, Taiwan health insurance does not pay for artificial reproductive costs, expensive is another social phenomenon of rich and poor. Taiwan's current situation of artificial reproductive law to legislate, but only surrogacy, surrogacy rights and interests have not been the Court's attention. Last year, the artist Xiao Xian to the United States without a uterus to seek surrogate mother technology failure, and again caused a wave of Taiwanese to surrogate pregnant mother's concern. (Recommended reading: women without a uterus, have you ever heard of commercial surrogacy?) )
Even in the United States, women who become surrogate mothers are mostly women with less income in society, to contribute to the body of money--many people criticize such a woman's body is instrumental, surrogate motherhood in the third world to become the main economic source of women, the most popular is the poor women's resources are not equal to oppression- Surrogate pregnancy black market to the surrogate mother implanted multiple embryos, surrogate mothers are charged with high intermediary fees .... People look sadly at the world's baby-making factories in India, but Indian women plead not to deprive the surrogate, so how do they nurture their own children in their own homes?
Surrogacy industry in China to promote "as long as 850,000 to ensure the birth of boys" slogan, surrogacy technology has sparked another kind of patriarchal social anxiety. China currently has nearly 400 auxiliary reproductive centers, late marriage to the underground surrogacy industry booming, but still lack of perfect matching.
Surrogate mothers claim to be willing to make their own choices, voluntarily taking on the various threats to their bodies, in exchange for money and continuing to live. I am curious as to how we can give these women the opportunity to live without acting as surrogate mothers when all kinds of theories criticize women's body being containerized and materialized.
In April 2017, the Philadelphia Children's Hospital team announced a long-term study of the "artificial womb", and they successfully extended the gestation period of the artificial uterus to four weeks, the group of scientists Let premature infants survive "service" for the purpose of the sheep fetus into a biological bag to continue to develop, sheep fetal lungs and brain continue to grow in the artificial womb, began to grow wool, open eyes, twisting limbs also learned to swallow. (Recommended reading:"Gender Watch" the near future of the artificial uterus, will be the new gospel of women?) )
The news is circulating in medical circles, with people excited about the future of the world's reproductive future that will dramatically change the future of the artificial womb. There is also speculation that the future of technology can completely replace the female uterus.
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The reproductive needs of the future society: Single mothers and gay families
We discuss the poverty and oppression behind surrogate motherhood, and we must face up to the reproductive needs of the "future Society". Many gay families have to rely on surrogate mothers to give birth to their own blood-related children. Gay families have to seek surrogacy surgery, expensive medical to organize the family, back to Taiwan but also faced with the law, gay families in the declaration of children must be noted that the child is "mother abandoned", "single-parent families" may be reported to the account, hoping to be recognized " "To get married" has a long way to pay for the rights of the gay population in the law.
It's not "having kids" to be complete, but to put down the idea of destroying a family. Looking to the family has the need for a partner, how our society in response to the need to give equal resources to maternity and parenting rights?
Another demand that needs to be addressed is that single people apply for surrogate motherhood, with 53 countries and regions setting up artificial reproductive laws, 20 of which limit married couples to use artificial reproduction. In Taiwan, the Artificial Reproductive Act stipulates that even if single women retain healthy eggs, they will not be able to artificial insemination into embryos before marriage, giving birth to their children. In China, when women apply for frozen eggs, they need to show their IDs, marriage licenses and Zhongsheng.
As Taiwan moves towards a new baby shortage and an ageing population, whether single women have the right to have a child is about to become an important issue for the future.
Look to the American single mother organization single Mothers by choice, there are three kinds of pregnant mothers: 60% are pregnant through sperm fertilization, another 20% are adopted, and 20% are pregnant with a known person or sexual partner through sexual intercourse, Either way, the mothers eventually did not move to marriage, choosing to raise their children alone, who had considerable financial and living standards, and could give their children ample living conditions. (same field Gayon:"Pregnant topic" contemporary adoption topic: Want to be a mother, can not be born? )
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Many young women in Iceland also opt for unmarried births, and the State supports single women with children who still enjoy the social benefits of family parenting, and women are more able to choose their own ideal lifestyle. People no longer through the anthropological Rite of passage experience the "complete life" of marriage and childbirth: South Korea has "three put a generation" of the said, give up love, give up marriage, give up childbirth; the number of Germans single and cohabiting but not married accounted for 47% of the marriageable population of young adults; Japanese 30~40岁 " The remaining male remains "up to the age of 2/3 people ...." The globalization of the concept of marriage, individualism in advance of the family, let people rethink the "marriage" and "birth" of the arrangement and a variety of possibilities-marriage does not have to be born, born not necessarily to marry, a complete life may not have to marry and have children.
Non-marital birth is not a moral issue, but a choice. Artificial reproductive technology may help families grow into more meta-rich patterns, children can be biological, surrogate pregnant mother, artificial fertilization, adoption, open to relatives or family obsession, love is not only a husband and wife for life, in addition to marriage and children, People should have more room to clarify their intimate relationship, perhaps we can make good use of the artificial reproductive technology and adoption system, to create a power unrelated intimate society, respect the choice of law and politics of single women, to their own era of the family.