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Xiao Xian openly admits infertility: "Because of genetic mutation, I was born without a uterus, difficult to reproduce." The media has said that this is a feminine elegy, deepen the necessary link between women and childbirth at the same time, we want to outlaw "surrogate mother" in the world, in fact, and "infertility" as full of difficulties. (Recommended reading: Gender observation: Xiao Xian talk about infertility, women endless Incense Magic spell)
She said a total of 4.3 million failed surrogacy surgery, in response to the "future will continue to work" responses to the media. But is this "future effort" likely to oppress the mother, or to persecute third-world women who have no choice but to become surrogate mothers? Another way of saying that surrogacy is to disarm the mother's reproductive labor of technology, next, we want to two data to imagine the future of surrogate mother May:
Data one: More than 30 countries worldwide have legal surrogacy
At present, more than 30 countries around the world to legalize surrogate motherhood, but strict legal restrictions and high medical spending have allowed many infertile couples and gay couples to enter the United States, about 100,000 U.S. dollars, India for 40,000 U.S. dollars, Thailand for 50,000 U.S. dollars, so more people to India, Thailand and other Asian markets to find surrogate mothers.
India is the world's largest and mature commercial surrogacy market, about 12,000 thousand people every year from all over the country to apply for surrogate motherhood, but because of being criticized as a baby factory, in recent years the law more rigorous. In 2013, the Government of India formally forbade gay couples and single parents to apply for surrogacy, which also stipulates that infertile couples must be married for at least 2 years and have a medical-grade visa to entrust a surrogate mother. For 2015 years, foreigners were not allowed to use commercial surrogacy services, and in November the commercial surrogacy was declared no longer legal. (Extended reading:"The topic of pregnancy" from the "orange red" read Surrogate mother: is the uterus a privilege or a yoke? )
The cross-border ban on surrogacy is designed to protect poor women, as well as to prevent the death of surrogate mothers from childbirth and the illegal sale of babies on the black market in India. What we are not concerned about, however, is that many Indian mothers were quietly transported to Africa for surrogacy surgery behind the ban.
The Indian surrogate market has been running for a long time, it is also a conduit for the livelihood of many poor women, but it is not enough to support a woman's permanent life, and in Thailand, India, Russia and other countries, the legal surrogacy charges are low, India is about 30,000 dollars, and the wages in the surrogate mother's hand is only one-tenth.
Dilemma One: deepening of weakness and solidification of the parent-job
Surrogacy is to maintain a sound social and demographic structure, the ethical dilemma of Surrogacy: market, science and technology and Virtue, said: "The social benefits of surrogacy, that the release of surrogacy will help to improve the fertility rate, improve the population knot age structure, to alleviate the various pressures brought about by the aging trend." 」
However, the utilitarian perspective of strengthening social function is a large number of the original disadvantaged and poor women, because of social oppression intensified into surrogacy industry, and to strengthen the role of the mother.
Dilemma Two: Ethical meaning and human nature
From the ethical point of view, surrogacy is undoubtedly the loss of human virtue, the pregnancy mechanism and the baby as a commodity, devoid of personality. This commercialization process will benefit the human nature and stand on the opposite side of ethics and morals. The argument of existentialism is that the person loses the subject and can be "produced and assigned to other families" at any time, without the original meaning or the "essential existence" identity. Even in many laws cannot be restored "who is the real mother of the child", so the surrogate fetus and the traditional meaning of the family link definition can not be embedded. (same field Gayon:"Trump, what does a woman's birth canal have to do with you?" "Emmahuasen a parade in Washington to give birth freedom."
There are also feminists who suggest that surrogacy is a representation of motherhood. Having a child for a long time is considered a female obligation, so when a woman lacks reproductive function, she cannot feel complete, and criticizes the commercialization of the uterus. At the same time, a large number of disabled people, infertile people look forward to a more convenient surrogate system. Many infertile people think that "surrogacy" provides a mechanism for them to enter the "complete family system", but is surrogacy a disadvantage or a free choice? Let's look at data two:
Data two: Global infertility 8至12%
In the past two years, the proportion of global infertility has risen, and in the higher demand, many people think that "want to have children" is not to aggravate the mother, but to allow each family to share the responsibility to choose their own family members, Taiwan's civil society began to actively discuss surrogacy legalization:
Support the argument one: Release the pressure of the female job
In Taiwan, groups opposed to open surrogacy believe that surrogacy is a way of consolidating patriarchal systems with reproductive technology, some people think that surrogacy can break the traditional concept of the role of "mother", women can choose to live and not, but also break the inevitable link between mother and reproductive function, liberate the pressure of the mother.
Support Argument two: Break the stigma of infertility
"Women without a uterus" in the media, the tragic reappearance of more and more fierce, the emotional and sacred nature of the womb has given women the responsibility to project a full reproductive obligation, and feminists believe that the use of surrogacy technology can release the social expectations of women in lieu of "invasive medical treatment". Also improved heterosexual marriage system forced women to sexual intercourse, reproduction, the implementation of "love of Labor."
Support Argument three: service more atypical families
In addition to data on infertility, the demand for surrogacy in recent years has been a "single person" and "gay family". But people are less often talking about such non-mainstream families.
The only countries currently legally agreeing to the use of surrogate services by single persons are: Arkansas, California, Illinois State, USA
The only countries that agree that gay families use surrogate services are: Britain, Australia, Canada, California, Connecticut.
It can be seen that the law is unfriendly to atypical families. At present, the discussion of surrogate motherhood is "whether it violates ethical system", but ignores the composition of different family forms, besides gay families, we should see the family appearance of other gender spectra: Transgender family, cross sex family ... Wait (Recommended you: The definition of "home" back to the people in love: my family unfortunate but very real )
Organize the above affirmative discussion, provide to the surrogate mother look forward to have a closer thought of you. Combined results, we can find that in the future we need more protection of the "weak surrogate mother" regulations, as well as the changes in the composition of the human family adapt to the way, but also to pay attention to the commercial surrogacy in the release of maternity duties at the same time, pay attention to the work of the female body Welcome you to discuss with us in the message place, the achievement more flexible sex freedom.
Refers to the surrogate pregnancy in addition to the medical expenses, living expenses, can receive labor remuneration.